Royal Belgian Institute for Natural Sciences – Geological Survey of Belgium (RBINSGSB)

The Geological Survey of Belgium (GSB) is a research and service department of the Royal Belgian Institute for Natural Sciences (RBINS). The GSB raw material group has developed an expertise on the characterisation and definition of mineral resources, especially Iron, Zinc and Lead deposits in Belgium and copper, cobalt and manganese ores from DR-Congo, New Caledonia, Burkina Faso and South Africa. Applied research at RBINS-GSB includes advancing spectrometry techniques (Raman, infrared absorption, LIBS) combined with geochemical analyses for the characterisation of ores and critical minerals. This approach allows the discrimination between phases that are usually regarded as difficult to assess due to their high geochemical variability and low-crystallinity and influences their hydro- and/or pyro-metallurgy treatment (Vanbrabant et al., 2013; Burlet et al., 2015). Related to offshore raw materials, GSB relies on the expertise of RBINS, Operational Directorate Natural Environments (OD-Nature). This unit maintain a state-of-the-art 4D model of the Belgian seabed in view of assessing offshore raw material extraction sustainability and its environmental impact.

The GSB raw material group has been involved in numerous joint projects, financed both by European and national institutions (including EuroGeoSource, AEGOS, GECO, One Geology Europe, GESTCO, PSSCCS projects I and II, Minerals4EU, MICA). The RBINS-GSB has developed several project websites, including georesources portals (;, and is managing the most active communication platform for Geoscientists in Belgium and Luxembourg (